Johann Philipp Schmitt
- Born: Abt 1760, Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany
- Marriage: Unknown
Johann Phillipp Schmitt could be the son, or nephew, of Johann Gerhard Schmitt, died 3 Dec 1771, and his wife, Elisabeth. Further research here is indicated.
Johann Philipp Schmitt was a soldier in the Duke's personal guard. Records do not indicate if this a lifelong career, so he could have served either Duke Ludwig IX, or, if after 1790, his son, Ludwig X (Grand Duke Ludwig I), or both.
Before 1790 he would have been in the employ of Duke Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Ludwig (Louis) IX of Hesse-Darmstadt (December 15, 1719-May 13, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg.
Ludwig IX was born in Darmstadt. On 12 August 1741, Ludwig married Caroline of Zweibrücken, daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken. They had five sons and three daughters, including:
* Caroline (1746-1821), married Friedrich V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg
* Frederica Louisa (1751-1805), married King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia and became Queen of Prussia
* Ludwig X (1753-1820)
* Amalie (1754-1832), married Karl Ludwig, Hereditary Prince of Baden
* Wilhelmina Louisa (1755-1776), married Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich of Russia, later emperor
* Louisa Augusta (1757-1830), married Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
* Frederick (1759-1802)
* Christian (1763-1830)
After the death of Ludwig IX, Johann Philipp Schmitt would have been in the employ of his son, Ludwig X, who later became Grand Duke Ludwig I.
Ludwig (Louis) I, Grand Duke of Hesse (14 June 1753, Prenzlau \endash 6 April 1830, Darmstadt) was Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (as Ludwig X) and later the first Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.
Ludwig succeeded his father in 1790. He presided over a significant increase in territory for Hesse-Darmstadt during the imperial reorganizations of 1801-1803, most notably the Duchy of Westphalia, hitherto subject to the Archbishop of Cologne. Allied to Napoleon, Ludwig in 1806 was elevated to the title of a Grand Duke of Hesse and joined the Confederation of the Rhine, leading to the dissolution of the Empire. At the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Ludwig had to give up his Westphalian territories, but was compensated with the district of Rheinhessen, with his capital Mainz on the left bank of the Rhine. Because of this addition, he amended his title to Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.
In 1844, a 33-meter column called Langer Ludwig (meaning Long Ludwig), was set up In his commemoration in the middle of the Luisenplatz, the largest square of Darmstadt.
In 1776, he became engaged to Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, eldest daughter of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg. The engagement was broken off so that Sophia Dorothea could marry Ludwig's recently widowed brother-in-law Tsarevich Paul Petrovich, son and heir of Catherine II "the Great", Empress of Russia. He received a monetary compensation when the engagement was broken. On 19 February 1777, Ludwig married his first cousin, Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt (15 February 1761 - October 24, 1829 ), a daughter of Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt. Together, they had six children :
* Ludwig, later Grand Duke Ludwig II of Hesse ( 26 December 1777 - 16 June 1848. Married Wilhelmine of Baden and had issue.
* Luise ( January 16, 1779 - April 18, 1811 ). Married Louis of Anhalt-Köthen and had issue.
* Georg ( August 31, 1780 - 17 April 1856 ). Married, morganatically, Caroline Török de Szendrö and had issue.
* Friedrich ( May 14, 1788 - March 16, 1867 )
* Emil ( September 3, 1790 - April 30, 1856 )
* Gustav ( December 18, 1791 - 30 January 1806 )