Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp
- Born: 25 Jan 1526
- Marriage: Christine of Hesse-Kassel on 17 Dec 1564
- Died: 1 Oct 1586 at age 60
Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp was the first Duke of Holstein-Gottorp from the line of Holstein-Gottorp of the House of Oldenburg.
He was the third son of King Frederick I of Denmark and his second wife Sophie of Pomerania. Frederick had his son educated by Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. He spent four years in the Philip's castle in Kassel.
In 1544 Adolf, his brother Johann, and their half-brother King Christian III of Denmark, divided the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The areas were divided according to approximately equal tax proceeds. Adolf, as the youngest, was entitled the first choice. Since he selected the part with the castle Gottorp, the line of the house Oldenburg created by him, was called Schleswig Holstein Gottorp.
He travelled, entrusting Johan Rantzau to manage his country. Adolf participated in the Diet of Augsburg, where he witnessed Emperor Charles V at the high point of his power. In 1553 Adolf turned to his homeland.
Family and children
On 17 December 1564 he married Christine, daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, and had the following children:
1. Frederick II of Holstein-Gottorp (21 April 1568 \endash 15 June 1587).
2. Sofie (1 June 1569 \endash 14 November 1634), married on 17 February 1588 to Johann V-VII, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
3. Philipp of Holstein-Gottorp (10 August 1570 \endash 18 October 1590).
4. Christine (13 April 1573 \endash 8 December 1625), married on 27 August 1592 to King Charles IX of Sweden.
5. Johann Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (27 February 1575 \endash 31 March 1616).
6. Anna (27 February 1575 \endash 24 April 1625), married 28 January 1598 to Count Enno III of Ostfriesland.
7. Christian, died young in 1577.
8. Agnes (20 December 1578 \endash 1627).
9. Johann Friedrich, Archbishop of Bremen, (1 September 1579 \endash 3 September 1634).
10. Elisabeth, died young in 1584.
Adolf married Christine of Hesse-Kassel, daughter of Philip I 'the Magnanimous' or 'Großmütige' Landgrave of Hesse and Christine of Saxony, on 17 Dec 1564. (Christine of Hesse-Kassel was born on 29 Jun 1543 and died on 13 May 1604.)