Amelia Sophia Hanover
- Born: 10 Jul 1711, Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, Niedersachsen, Prussia
- Died: 31 Oct 1786 at age 75
The Princess Amelia Sophia was a member of the British Royal Family, the second daughter of George II.
Princess Amelia was born at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, Germany. Her father was The Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the son of the Elector of Hanover. Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
At her birth she was styled HSH Princess Amelia Sophia of Hanover. She was known to her family as Emily.
Under the Act of Settlement 1701, Princess Amelia's grandfather became King of Great Britain on 1 August 1714 following the death of Queen Anne. Amelia's father became Duke of Cornwall, and was created Prince of Wales on 27 September 1714. Amelia became HRH Princess Amelia Sophia of Wales. She moved to Great Britain with her family and resided at St James's Palace in London.
On 11 June 1727, George I died and her father succeeded him as George II. Amelia was now styled HRH The Princess Amelia Sophia. She lived with her father until his death in 1760. She was the intended wife of Frederick II of Prussia, until his father forced him to marry Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern, in 1733.
In 1751, Princess Amelia Sophia became ranger of Richmond Park after the death of Horace Walpole. Immediately afterwards, the Princess caused major public uproar by closing the park to the public, only allowing few close friends and those with special permits to enter.
This continued until 1758, when a local brewer, John Lewis, took the gatekeeper who stopped him from entering the park to court. The court ruled in favour of Lewis, citing the fact that, when Charles I enclosed the park in the 1600s, he allowed the public right of way in the park. Princess Amelia was forced to lift the restrictions.
In 1761, she became the owner of Gunnersbury Estate, Middlesex, and at some time between 1777 and 1784, commissioned a bath house, extended as a folly by a subsequent owner of the land in the 19th Century, which still stands today with a Grade II English Heritage listing and is known as Princess Amelia's Bathhouse.
She also owned a property in Cavendish Square, Soho, London, where, on 31 October 1786, at which time she was the last surviving child of George II and his Queen Caroline, she died unmarried. She was buried in the Henry VII Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey.