Anton Ulrich Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
- Born: 4 Oct 1633, Hitzacker, Lüchow-Dannenberg, Niedersachsen, Germany
- Marriage: Elizabeth Juliana in 1656
- Died: 27 Mar 1714, Salzdahlum, Wolfenbüttel, Niedersachsen, Germany at age 80
Anton Ulrich (English: Anthony Ulrich) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy from 1685 until 1702 jointly with his brother, and solely from 1704 until his death.
Anthony Ulrich was the second son of Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg; he studied at the University of Helmstedt. After their father's death in 1666, Rudolph Augustus, Anthony Ulrich's elder brother, became reigning duke and made Anthony Ulrich his proxy. In 1685, Rudolph Augustus made Anthony Ulrich a coregent with equal rights; Rudolph Augustus had little interest in government affairs and left most decisions to his brother.
After the Hanover subdivision of the duchy had received a new prince-electorship from the Emperor in 1692, tensions between the two states rose, as both Anthony Ulrich and Rudolph Augustus were dismayed that they had not received the electorship. While both Hanover and Lüneburg sided with Emperor Leopold I in the War of the Spanish Succession, Anthony Ulrich decided to enter into an agreement with France. This led to Hanover and Lüneburg invading the Principality of Wolfenbüttel in March 1702; Anthony Ulrich was almost captured while travelling from Wolfenbüttel to Brunswick. By order of the Emperor, Anthony Ulrich was deposed as duke against his brother's protestations, and Rudolph Augustus remained as the only ruler, while Anthony Ulrich fled to Saxe-Gotha. In April 1702, Rudolph Augustus signed a treaty with Hanover and Lüneburg that Anthony Ulrich later agreed to.
After Rudolph Augustus' death in 1704, Anthony Ulrich took over government again. He continued to settle various disputes with Hanover, until a final agreement between the two sister principalities was reached in 1706.
In 1709, Anthony Ulrich converted to the Roman Catholic Church, but guaranteed to his subjects that this would not influence his government, although he allowed the opening of the first Catholic church in his state. He died at Salzdahlum Palace, which he had built, in 1714, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Augustus William.
Anthony Ulrich is known as a supporter of scholarship and the arts. He significantly extended the Bibliotheca Augusta, a library founded by his father. He hired the philosopher Leibniz as a librarian, and was a supporter of Anton Wilhelm Amo, the first black Doctor of Philosophy in Europe. He wrote two novels and a number of poems, and had a large art collection, which later became the foundation of the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum (Duke Anthony Ulrich Museum).
Anthony Ulrich married Elizabeth Juliana, daughter of Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Nordborg, in 1656. They had the following children who reached adulthood:
* Augustus Frederick (1657-1676)
* Elizabeth Eleanore Sophie (1658-1729), married John George, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow and Bernard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
* Anne Sophie (1659-1742), married Charles Gustav, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
* Augustus William (1662-1731)
* Augusta Dorothea (1666-1751), married Anthony Gunther, Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
* Henrietta Christine, Abbess of Gandersheim (1669-1753)
* Louis Rudolph (1671-1735)
Anton married Elizabeth Juliana, daughter of Frederick Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Nordborg and Unknown, in 1656. (Elizabeth Juliana was born about 1635.)