Jaroslav I "the Wise" Vladimirovich Grand Prince
- Born: 978, Kievan Rus'
- Marriage: Ingegarde Olofsdatter Princess Of Sweden in 1019 in Konghelle, Sweden
- Died: 20 Feb 1054, Kievan Rus' at age 76
- Buried: 1054, St. Sophia Cathedral, Kiev, Ukraine, Russia
Other names for Jaroslav were George and Yuri.
Jaroslav I was Eric & Evan Obrock's 30th great-grandfather.
Kievan Rus achieved its greatest power and splendor under Jaroslav the Wise in the 11th century. Yaroslav made Kiev a great city and built magnificent buildings, including the notable Cathedral of Saint Sophia or Hagia Sophia of Kiev. Jaroslav did much to develop Kievan Rus education and culture. He also revised the first Russian law code, the so-called Russkaya Pravda or Russian Justice. After his death in 1054, Kievan Rus declined. Jaroslav's grandson, Vladimir II Monomachus, made the final attempt to unite Kievan Rus, but after his death in 1125 the fragmentation continued as other Kievan Rus principalities challenged Kiev's supremacy.
By the 13th century, the East Slavic lands became a loose federation of city-states, held together by common language, religion, traditions, and customs. Although ruled by members of the house of Rurik, these city-states were often at war with one another. The area became an easy target for bands of invading Asiatic Mongols.
Also: Jaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. During his lengthy reign, Kievan Rus' reached a zenith of its cultural flowering and military power.
His way to the throne Early years of Jaroslav's life are enshrouded in mystery. He was one of the numerous sons of Vladimir the Great, presumably his second by Rogneda of Polotsk, although his actual age (as stated in the Russian Primary Chronicle and corroborated by the examination of his skeleton in the 1930s) would place him among the youngest children of Vladimir. It was speculated that he was a child begotten out of wedlock after Vladimir's divorce with Rogneda and his marriage to Anna Porphyrogeneta. Jaroslav figures prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name of Jarisleif the Lame; his legendary lameness (probably result of an arrow wound) was corroborated by the scientists who examined his relics.
The Ukrainian grivna (paper currency) represents Jaroslav unbearded, as was the custom of Zaporozhian Cossacks. Russian images represent Jaroslav with a beard, as was the Muscovite custom.
In his youth, Jaroslav was sent by his father to rule the northern lands around Rostov the Great but was transferred to Novgorod the Great, as befitted a senior heir to the throne, in 1010. While living there, he founded the town of Jaroslavl (literally, Jaroslav's) on the Volga and (somewhat later) Yuriev (literally, Yury's) in Estonia. His relations with father were apparently strained, and grew only worse on the news that Vladimir bequeathed the Kievan throne to his younger son, Boris. In 1014 Jaroslav refused to pay tribute to Kiev and only Vladimir's death prevented a war.
During next four years Jaroslav waged a complicated and bloody war for Kiev against his half-brother Sviatopolk, who was supported by his father-in-law, king Boleslaus I of Poland. During the course of struggle, several other uncles (Boris, Gleb, Svyatoslav) were brutally murdered. The Primary Chronicle accused Svyatopolk of planning those murders, while the Saga of Eymund recounts the story of Boris's assassination by the Varangians in the service of Jaroslav.
In 1019, Jaroslav eventually prevailed over Svyatopolk and established his rule over Kiev. One of his first actions as a grand prince was to confer on the loyal Novgorodians (who had helped him to regain the throne), numerous freedoms and privilegies. Thus, the foundation for the Novgorod Republic was laid. The Novgorodians respected Jaroslav more than other Kievan princes and named a veche square after him. It is thought that it was at that period that Yaroslav promulgated the first Russian code of laws, called Yaroslav's Justice.
His reign: Leaving aside the legitimacy of Jaroslav's claims to the Kievan throne and his postulated guilt in the murder of brothers, Nestor and later Russian historians often represented him as a model of virtue and styled him the Wise. A less appealing side of his personality may be revealed by the fact that he imprisoned his younger brother Sudislav for life. Yet another brother, Mstislav of Tmutarakan, whose distant realm bordered on the Northern Caucasus and the Black Sea, hastened to Kiev and inflicted a heavy defeat on Jaroslav in 1024. Thereupon Jaroslav and Mstislav divided Kievan Rus: the area stretching left from the Dnieper, with the capital at Chernihiv, was ceded to Mstislav until his death in 1036.
In his foreign policy, Jaroslav relied on the Scandinavian alliance and attempted to weaken the Byzantine influence on Kiev. In 1030 he reconquered from the Poles Red Rus, and concluded an alliance with king Casimir I the Restorer, sealed by the latter's marriage to Jaroslav's sister Maria. In 1043 he staged a raid against Constantinople led by his son Vladimir. Although the Rus army was defeated, Jaroslav managed to conclude the war with a favourable treaty and prestigious marriage of his son Vsevolod to the emperor's daughter.
To defend his state from nomadic tribes threatening it from the south he constructed a line of fortifications near the towns of Chersones, Kanev and Pereyaslav. To celebrate his decisive victory over the Pechenegs (who thereupon disappear from history) he sponsored the construction of the Saint Sophia Cathedral in 1037. Other celebrated monuments of his reign, such as the Golden Gates of Kiev, have since perished.
Jaroslav was a notable patron of book culture and learning. In 1051, he had a Russian monk Ilarion proclaimed the metropolitan of Kiev, thus challenging old Byzantine tradition of placing Greeks on the episcopal sees. Ilarion's discourse on Jaroslav and his father Vladimir is frequently cited as the first work of Old Russian literature.
Family life and posterity Jaroslav and his wife Irene are buried in the 13-domed Saint Sophia Cathedral they built in Kiev.In 1019, Jaroslav married Ingegerd Olofsdotter, daughter of king of Sweden, and gave Ladoga to her as a marriage gift. There are good reasons to believe that before that time he had been married to a woman named Anna, of disputed extraction.
In the Saint Sophia Cathedral, one may see a fresco representing the whole family: Jaroslav, Irene (as Ingigerd was known in Rus), their 5 daughters and 5 sons. Jaroslav married three of his daughters to foreign princes who lived in exile at his court: Elizabeth to Harald III of Norway (who had attained her hand by his military exploits in the Byzantine Empire); Anastasia to the future Andrew I of Hungary, and the youngest daughter Anne of Kiev married Henry I of France and was the regent of France during their son's minority. Another daughter may have been the Agatha who married Edward the Exile, heir to the throne of England (the true identity of Edward's wife being still disputed).
Jaroslav had one son from the first marriage (his Christian name being Ilya), and 6 sons from the second marriage. Apprehending the danger that could ensue from divisions between brothers, he exhorted them to live in peace with each other. The eldest of these, Vladimir of Novgorod, best remembered for building the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, predeceased his father. Three other sons - Izyaslav, Svyatoslav, and Vsevolod - reigned in Kiev one after another. The youngest children of Jaroslav were Igor of Volynia and Vyacheslav of Smolensk.
Jaroslav married Ingegarde Olofsdatter Princess Of Sweden, daughter of King Olof III Scötkonung "The Tax King" Eriksson of Sweden and Astrid (Inegrid) Princess Of The Obotrites, Queen of Sweden, in 1019 in Konghelle, Sweden. (Ingegarde Olofsdatter Princess Of Sweden was born about 1001 in Sigtuna, Sweden, died on 10 Feb 1050 in Vyshorod Near Kiev and was buried in 1050 in St. Sophia Cathedral, Kiev, Ukraine, Russia.)