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King John 'Lackland' Plantagenet of England
(1166-1216)
Isabella of Angoulême
(Abt 1188-1246)
Raymond V (IV) Bérenger Count Of Provence & Forcalquier
(Between 1195/1198-1245)
Beatrice de Savoie
(Abt 1201-1266)
King Henry III Plantagenet of England
(1206-1272)
Eleanore de Provence Bérenger
(Abt 1217-1291)

King Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet
(1239-1307)

 

Family Links

Spouses/Children:
1. Eleanor de Castile Queen Of England

2. Marguerite of France
3. Alice de Lusignan

King Edward I "Longshanks" Plantagenet

  • Born: 17 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
  • Christened: 21 Jun 1239, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
  • Marriage (1): Eleanor de Castile Queen Of England on 18 Oct 1254 in Las Huelgas, Burgos, Burgos, Spain
  • Marriage (2): Marguerite of France on 10 Sep 1299 in Canterbury, Kent, England
  • Marriage (3): Alice de Lusignan about 1264
  • Died: 7 Jul 1307, Burgh-On-Sands, Cumberland, England at age 68
  • Buried: 28 Oct 1307, Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England

   Another name for Edward was Hammer of the Scots.

  General Notes:

Edward "Longshanks" son of Henry III and king of England in 1272-1307,
during a period of rising national consciousness. He strengthened the
crown and Parliament against the old feudal nobility. He subdued
Wales, destroying its autonomy; and he sought (unsuccessfully) the
conquest of Scotland. His reign is particularly noted for
administrative efficiency and legal reform. He introduced a series of
statutes that did much to strengthen the crown in the feudal
hierarchy. His definition and emendation of English common law has
earned him the name of the "English Justinian".

Edward was the eldest son of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.
In 1254 he was given the duchy of Gascony, the French Oléron, the
Channel Islands, Ireland, Henry's lands in Wales, and the earldom of
Chester, as well as several castles. Henry negotiated Edward's
marriage with Eleanor, half sister of Alfonso X of Leon and Castile.
Edward married Eleanor at Las Huelgas in Spain (October 1254) and then
traveled to Bordeaux to organize his scattered appanage. He now had
his own household and officials, chancery and seal, with an exchequer
(treasury) at Bristol Castle; though nominally governing all his
lands, he merely enjoyed the revenues in Gascony and Ireland.

He returned to England in November 1255 and attacked Llywelyn ap
Gruffudd, prince of Gwynedd, to whom his Welsh subjects had appealed
for support when Edward attempted to introduce English administrative
units in his Welsh lands. Edward, receiving no help from either Henry
or the marcher lords, was defeated ignominiously. His arrogant
lawlessness and his close association with his greedy Poitevin uncles,
who had accompanied his mother from France, increased Edward's
unpopularity among the English. But after the Poitevins were expelled,
Edward fell under the influence of Simon de Montfort, his uncle by
marriage,with whom he made a formal pact. Montfort was the leader of a
baronial clique that was attempting to curb the misgovernment of
Henry.

Edward reluctantly accepted the Provisions of Oxford (1258), which
gave effective government to the barons at the expense of the king. On
the other hand, he intervened dramatically to support the radical
Provisions of Westminster (October 1259), which ordered the barons to
accept reforms demanded by their tenants. In the dangerous crisis
early in 1260 he supported Montfort and the extremists, though finally
he deserted Montfort and was forgiven by Henry (May 1260). He was sent
to Gascony in October 1260 but returned early in 1263. Civil war had
now broken out between Henry and the barons, who were supported by
London. Edward's violent behavior and his quarrel with the Londoners
harmed Henry's cause. At the Battle of Lewes (May 14, 1264) his
vengeful pursuit of the Londoners early in the battle contributed to
Henry's defeat. Edward surrendered and became a hostage in Montfort's
hands. He escaped at Hereford in May 1265 and took charge of the
royalist forces, penned Montfort behind the River Severn, and, by
lightning strategy, destroyed a large relieving army at Kenilworth
(August 1). On August 4 he trapped and slew Montfort at Evesham and
rescued Henry. Shattered and enfeebled, Henry allowed Edward effective
control of government, and the latter's extreme policy of vengeance,
especially against the Londoners, revived and prolonged rebel
resistance. Finally, the papal legate Ottobuono, Edward's uncle
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and other moderates persuaded Henry to the
milder policy of the Dictum of Kenilworth (Oct. 31, 1266), and after
some delay the rebels surrendered.

Edward took the cross (1268), intending to join the French king Louis IX on a crusade to the Holy Land, but was delayed by lack of money until August 1270. Louis died
before Edward's arrival; and Edward, after wintering in Sicily, went
to Acre, where he stayed from May 1271 to September 1272, winning fame
by his energy and courage and narrowly escaping death by assassination
but achieving no useful results. On his way home he learned in Sicily
of Henry III's death on Nov. 16, 1272.

Edward had nominated Walter Giffard, archbishop of York, Philip
Basset, Roger Mortimer, and his trusted clerk Robert Burnell to
safeguard his interests during his absence. After Henry's funeral, the
English barons all swore fealty to Edward (Nov. 20, 1272). His
succession by hereditary right and the will of his magnates was
proclaimed, and England welcomed the new reign peacefully, Burnell
taking charge of the administration with his colleagues' support. The
quiet succession demonstrated England's unity only five years after a
bitter civil war. Edward could journey homeward slowly,halting in
Paris to do homage to his cousin Philip III for his French lands (July
26, 1273), staying several months in Gascony and reaching Dover on
Aug. 2, 1274, for his coronation at Westminster on August 19. Now 35
years old, Edward had redeemed a bad start. He had been arrogant,
lawless, violent, treacherous, revengeful, and cruel; his Angevin
rages matched those of Henry II. Loving his own way and intolerant of
opposition, he had still proved susceptible to influence by
strong-minded associates. He had shown intense family affection,
loyalty to friends, courage, brilliant military capacity, and a gift
for leadership; handsome, tall, powerful, and tough, he had the
qualities men admired. He loved efficient, strong government, enjoyed
power, and had learned to admire justice, though in his own affairs it
was often the letter, not the spirit of the law that he observed.
Having mastered his anger, he had shown himself capable of patient
negotiation, generosity, and even idealism; and he preferred the
society and advice of strong counselors with good minds. As long as
Burnell and Queen Eleanor lived, the better side of Edward triumphed,
and the years until about 1294 were years of great achievement.
Thereafter, his character deteriorated for lack of domestic comfort
and independent advice. He allowed his autocratic temper full rein and
devoted his failing energies to prosecution of the wars in France and
against Scotland.

Shrewdly realistic, Edward understood the value of the “parliaments,”
which since 1254 had distinguished English government and which
Montfort had deliberately employed to publicize government policy and
to enlist widespread, active support by summoning representatives of
shires and boroughs to the council to decide important matters. Edward
developed this practice swiftly, not to share royal power with his
subjects but to strengthen royal authority with the support of rising
national consciousness. From 1275 to 1307 he summoned knights and
burgesses to his parliaments in varying manners. The Parliament of
1295, which included representatives of shires,boroughs, and the
lesser clergy, is usually styled the Model Parliament, but the pattern
varied from assembly to assembly, as Edward decided. By 1307,
Parliament, thus broadly constituted, had become the distinctive
feature of English politics, though its powers were still undefined
and its organization embryonic.

Edward used these parliaments and other councils to enact measures of
consolidation and reform in legal, procedural, and administrative
matters of many kinds. The great statutes promulgated between 1275 and
1290 are the glory of his reign. Conservative and definitory rather
than original, they owed much to Burnell, Edward's chancellor. With
the vast developments and reorganization of the administrative machine
that Burnell coordinated, they created a new era in English
government. The quo warranto inquiry, begun in 1275, the statutes of
Gloucester (1278) and of Quo Warranto (1290) sought with much success
to bring existing franchises under control and to prevent the
unauthorized assumption of new ones. Tenants were required to show “by
what warrant” or right they held their franchises. Edward strove,
unsuccessfully, to restore the feudal army and strengthen local
government institutions by compelling minor landowners to assume the
duties of knighthood. His land legislation, especially the clause de
donis conditionalibus in the miscellaneous Second Statute of
Westminster (1285) and the statute Quia Emptores (Third Statute of
Westminster, 1290), eventually helped to undermine feudalism, quite
contrary to his purpose. By the Statute of Mortmain (1279) the crown
gained control of the acquisition of land by ecclesiastical bodies.
The Statute of Winchester (1285) codified and strengthened the police
system for preserving public order. The Statute of Acton Burnell
(1283) and the Statute of Merchants (1285) showed practical concern
for trade and merchants. These are but the most famous of many
statutes aimed at efficiency and sound administration.

Meanwhile, Edward destroyed the autonomous principality of Wales,
which, under Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, had expanded to include all Welsh
lordships and much territory recovered from the marcher lords.
Domestic difficulties had compelled Henry III to recognize Llywelyn's
gains by the Treaty of Shrewsbury (1267), but Edward was determined to
reduce Llywelyn and used Llywelyn's persistent evasion of his duty to
perform homage as a pretext for attack. He invaded Wales by three
coordinated advances with naval support (1277), blockaded Llywelyn in
Snowdonia, starved him into submission, and stripped him of all his
conquests since 1247. He then erected a tremendous ring of powerful
castles encircling Gwynedd and reorganized the conquered districts as
shires and hundreds. When English rule provoked rebellion, he
methodically reconquered the principality, killing both Llywelyn
(1282) and his brother David (1283). By the Statute of Wales (1284) he
completed the reorganization of the principality on English lines,
leaving the Welsh marchers unaffected. A further Welsh rising in
1294–95 was ruthlessly crushed, and Wales remained supine for more
than 100 years.

After 1294, matters deteriorated. Queen Eleanor had died in 1290,
Burnell in1292, and Edward never thereafter found such good advisers.
The conquest and fortification of Wales had badly strained his
finances; now endless wars with Scotland and France bankrupted him. He
quarrelled bitterly with both clergy and barons, behaving as a rash
and obstinate autocrat who refused to recognize his limitations.
Philip III and Philip IV of France had both cheated him of the
contingent benefits promised by the Treaty of Paris (1259). By
constant intervention on pretext of suzerainty they had nibbled at his
Gascon borders and undermined the authority of his administration
there. After doing homage to Philip IV in 1286, Edward visited Gascony
to reorganize the administration and restore authority. On returning
to England in 1289 he had to dismiss many judges and officials for
corruption and oppression during his absence. In 1290, having
systematically stripped the Jews of their remaining wealth, he
expelled them from England. French intervention in Gascony was now
intensified; affrays between English and French sailors inflamed
feelings; and in 1293 Philip IV tricked Edward's brother Edmund, earl
of Lancaster, who was conducting negotiations, into ordering a
supposedly formal and temporary surrender of the duchy, which Philip
then refused to restore. The Welsh rising and Scottish troubles
prevented Edward from taking action, and when at last, in 1297, he
sailed to attack France from Flanders, his barons refused to invade
Gascony, and William Wallace's rising forced him to return. He made
peace with Philip (1299) and by Boniface VIII's persuasion married
Philip's sister Margaret, and eventually recovered an attenuated
Gascon duchy.

For more than 100 years relations between England and Scotland had
been amicable, and the border had been remarkably peaceful. Edward
inaugurated 250 years of bitter hatred, savage warfare, and bloody
border forays. The deaths of Alexander III of Scotland (1286) and his
granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway (1290), whom Edward planned
to marry to his heir, Edward of Caernarvon (afterward Edward II),
ended the line of succession. Many dubious claimants arose, and the
Scottish magnates requested Edward's arbitration. Edward compelled the
nobles and the claimants to recognize his suzerainty, and only then
adjudged John de Balliol king (1292). Balliol did homage and was
crowned, but Edward's insistence on effective jurisdiction, as
suzerain, in Scottish cases eventually provoked the Scottish nobles to
force Balliol to repudiate Edward's claims and to ally with France
(1295). Edward invaded and conquered Scotland (1296), removing to
Westminster the coronation stone of Scone. Wallace led a revolt in
1297, and Edward, though brilliantly victorious at Falkirk (July 22,
1298), could not subdue the rebellion despite prolonged campaigning
(1298-1303).

The strain of these years provoked heavy collisions between Edward and
his magnates. He had quarrelled violently with his archbishops of
Canterbury, John Peckham (1279-92) and Robert Winchelsey (1293-1313),
over ecclesiastical liberties and jurisdiction. In 1297 Winchelsey,
obeying Pope Boniface VIII's bull Clericis Laicos (1296), rejected
Edward's demands for taxes from the clergy, whereupon Edward outlawed
the clergy. His barons now defied his orders to invade Gascony and,
when Edward went to Flanders, compelled the regents to confirm the
charters of liberties, with important additions forbidding arbitrary
taxation (1297), thereby forcing Edward to abandon the campaign and
eventually to make peace with France. Although Pope Clement V, more
pliant than Boniface, allowed Edward to exile Winchelsey and
intimidate the clergy (1306), the barons had exacted further
concessions (1301) before reconciliation. Edward renewed the conquest
of Scotland in 1303, captured Stirling in 1304, and executed Wallace
as a traitor in 1305; but when Scotland seemed finally subjected,
Robert I the Bruce revived rebellion and was crowned in 1306. On his
way to reconquer Scotland, Edward died near Carlisle.

Edward married Eleanor de Castile Queen Of England, daughter of King Ferdinand III of Castile and Jeanne de Dammartin Countess of Ponthieu, on 18 Oct 1254 in Las Huelgas, Burgos, Burgos, Spain. (Eleanor de Castile Queen Of England was born in 1244 in Burgos, Burgos, Castile, died on 29 Nov 1290 in Herdby, Lincolnshire, England and was buried on 16 Dec 1290 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England.)

Edward next married Marguerite of France, daughter of King Philippe III 'the Bold' Capet of France and Marie de Brabant, on 10 Sep 1299 in Canterbury, Kent, England. (Marguerite of France was born in 1282 in France, died on 14 Feb 1317 in Marlborough, Sussex, England and was buried in Feb 1317 in London, Middlesex, England.)

Edward next married Alice de Lusignan about 1264. (Alice de Lusignan was born about 1248 and died in 1270.)



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