King Alexander II 'the Peaceful' of Scotland
- Born: 24 Aug 1198, Haddington, East Lothington, Scotland
- Marriage (1): Joan Plantagenet on 18 Jun 1221 in York, England
- Marriage (2): Unknown
- Marriage (3): Marie de Coucy on 15 May 1239 in Picardie, Picardie, France
- Died: 6 Jul 1249, Kerrera Island, Inner Hebrides at age 50
- Buried: 1249, Roxburgh, Roxburghshire, Scotland
Alexander II of Scotland Alexander II (August 24, 1198 - July 6, 1249, king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. The year after his accession the clans MacWilliam and MacHeth, inveterate enemies of the Scottish crown, broke into revolt; but loyalist forces speedily quelled the insurrection. In the same year Alexander joined the English barons in their struggle against John, and led an army into England in support of their cause; but after John's death, on the conclusion of peace between his youthful son Henry III and the French prince Louis, the Scottish king joined in the pacification. Diplomacy further strengthened the reconciliation by the marriage of Alexander to Henry's sister Joanna (or Joan) on June 18 or June 25, 1221. The next year marked the subjection of the hitherto semi-independent district of Argyll. Royal forces crushed a revolt in Galloway in 1235 without difficulty; nor did an invasion attempted soon afterwards by its exiled leaders meet with success. Soon afterwards a claim for homage from Henry of England drew forth from Alexander a counter-claim to the northern English counties. The two kingdoms, however, settled this dispute by a compromise in 1237. Joanna died in March, 1238 in Essex, and in the following year, 1239, Alexander remarried. His second wife was Mary of Coucy (Marie de Coucy). The marriage took place on May 15, 1239, and produced one son, the future Alexander III, born in 1241. A threat of invasion by Henry in 1243 for a time interrupted the friendly relations between the two countries; but the prompt action of Alexander in anticipating his attack, and the disinclination of the English barons for war, compelled him to make peace next year at Newcastle. Alexander now turned his attention to securing the Western Isles, which still owed a nominal allegiance to Norway. He successively attempted negotiations and purchase, but without success. Alexander next attempted to dissuade Ewen, the son of Duncan, Lord of Argyll, to sever his allegiance to the Norwegian king. Ewen rejected these attempts, and Alexander sailed forth to compel him. But on the way he suffered a fever at the Isle of Kerrera, in the Inner Hebrides, and died there in 1249. He was buried at Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire. His son Alexander III succeeded him as King of Scots.
From Kings & Queens of Scotland: Alexander was the only son of William the Lion and his wife Ermengarde. Born at Haddington, East Lothian on 24 August 1198, he was knighted by King John of England on 4 March 1212. Two years later, he succeeded his father. Although Alexander backed the barons who forced John to sign the Magna Carta, in 1221 he married John's eldest daughter Joan in York. She had no children, and died in 1238. The following year at Roxburgh, he married Marie, daughter of Enguerand, Baron de Coucy in Picardy - an alliance which raised English fears of a Franco-Scottish alliance. The long-standing dispute between Scotland and England over the Border was settled in 1237 when, by the Treaty of York, Alexander renounced Scotland's claims to the three northern counties of England in exchange for the honour of Tynedale and the manor of Penrith. The border between Scotland and England was now fixed almost exactly on its present line from the lower Tweed in the east to the Solway Firth in the west. Alexander died on the island of Kerrera, Argyllshire in 1249 whilst preparing to take the Hebrides from Norway. He was buried at Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire.
Alexander married Joan Plantagenet, daughter of King John 'Lackland' Plantagenet of England and Isabella of Angoulême, on 18 Jun 1221 in York, England. (Joan Plantagenet was born on 22 Jul 1210 in Coucy, Alsne, France, died on 4 Mar 1238 in London, Middlesex, England and was buried in Tarrant, Keynstan, Dorsetshire, England.)
Alexander next married.
Alexander next married Marie de Coucy, daughter of Enguerrand III Lord of Coucy and Marie de Montmirel, on 15 May 1239 in Picardie, Picardie, France. (Marie de Coucy was born in 1218 and died in 1285.)