King Boleslav I Chrobry 'the Brave' Poland of Poland
- Born: Abt 966, Poznañ, Poznañ, Poland
- Marriage (1): Rikdaga in 984
- Marriage (2): Thyra Haraldsdatter Queen of Norway
- Marriage (3): Judith about 990
- Marriage (4): Enmilda about 995
- Marriage (5): Oda about 998
- Died: 23 Jun 1025 about age 59
- Buried: 1025, Cathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, Poznan, Poland
Boleslaus I , c.966-1025, Polish ruler (992-1025), the first to call himself king; also called Boleslaus the Brave. He succeeded his father, Mieszko I, as duke of Poland, seized the territories left to his two brothers under their father's will, and set about increasing his holdings. With the sanction of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, he obtained (1000) the elevation of Gniezno into a metropolitan see, thus emancipating the Polish church from German control. Otto also supported plans for Polish political autonomy. Otto's successor, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II , opposed Boleslaus's ambition; when Boleslaus overran Meissen and the East Mark, Henry refused to confirm his control of these territories. Boleslaus took advantage of dynastic troubles to occupy Bohemia in 1003; expelled in 1004, he still retained Moravia. He repelled a series of invasions of Poland by Henry. In 1018, in the Peace of Bautzen, Boleslaus received Lusatia as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. Subsequently he campaigned successfully against Kiev. Boleslaus ranks among Poland's foremost rulers; he reorganized the administration, systematized taxation, and created a large standing army. Shortly before his death he was crowned king with the approval of the Holy See. He was succeeded by his son, Mieszko II .
Boleslaus the Brave (Polish: Boleslaw I Chrobry) (966/967 - July 17, 1025) of the Piast family, son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Czech princess Dobrawa, ruled as duke of Poland from 992 to 1025 and reigned as King of Poland in 1025.
In 984 Boleslaus married Rikdaga, the daughter of Riddag (Rikdag, Ricdag), the margrave of Meissen. Subsequently he married Judith, the daughter of Geza the Great Prince of Hungary; then Enmilda, the daughter of one Dobromir, a Lusatian prince; and Oda, daughter of the margrave of Meissen. His wives bore him sons including Bezprym, Mieszko II and Otton; and a daughter, Mathilde. After death of his father around 992 he was able to expel the second wife of his father, Oda, with her sons, and unite the country again.
In 997 Boleslaus sent Saint Adalbert of Prague to Prussia on the Baltic Sea to attempt to convert the Prussians to Christianity. By this time he already possessed Silesia and Pomerania (with its main city of Gdansk and Little Poland (with its main city of Kraków). In 999 he annexed present-day Moravia and in 1000 or 1001 Slovakia.
In A.D. 1000, while on a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Adalbert at Gniezno, the emperor Otto III invested Boleslaus with the title Frater et Cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire"). Some historians say that the emperor also pledged the king's crown to Boleslaus. On the same visit Otto III accepted Gniezno's status as an archbishopric (see Congress of Gniezno.
After the untimely death of Otto III in 1002 at the age of 22, Boleslaus conquered Meissen and Lusatia, in an attempt to wrest imperial territory for himself during the disputes over the throne; he and his father had both backed Henry the Wrangler against Otto earlier, and he accepted the accession of Henry II of Germany, the earlier Henry's son.
Boleslaus conquered and made himself duke of Bohemia and Moravia in 1003 - 1004, ruling as Boleslav IV; he used the internal war of Vladimir the Great sons for throne and the weakness of Kyivan Rus to launch a plundering attack on Kyiv in 1018, annexing the Red Strongholds (Grody Czerwienskie) later called Red Ruthenia and making prince Sviatopolk his vassal there for short time. The intermittent wars with Germany ended with the Peace of Bautzen, Budziszyn in 1018, which left Sorbian Meissen and Lusatia in Polish hands.
The emperor Henry II obliged Boleslaus to give a pledge of allegiance again for the lands he held in fief. After the death of Henry in 1024, Boleslaus crowned himself king, raising Poland to the rank of kingdom (1025).
The son of Boleslaus, Mieszko II crowned himself immediately after his father's death.
Boleslaus sent an army to aid his friend, or more probably to his nephew, Canute in his conquest of England.
The Significance of Boleslaus's reign in the history of Poland-
Boleslaus was the first Polish King, since during his rule Poland became a Kingdom, despite the fact that some of the Polish rulers before 1295 never received a crown. He was the first Polish ruler baptised at birth, the first real Christian ruler. He founded the independent Polish province of the church and made Poland a strong power in Europe. Boleslaus for the first time unified all the provinces that subsequently came to comprise the traditional territory of Poland: Greater Poland, Little Poland, Masovia, Silesia and Pomerania. For the Sorbs of Lusatia he became the national hero.
Boleslav married Rikdaga, daughter of Rikdag Margrave of Meißen and Unknown, in 984. (Rikdaga was born about 968.)
Boleslav next married Thyra Haraldsdatter Queen of Norway, daughter of King Harald II 'Blåtann' "Bluetooth" Gormsson of Denmark and Gunhild Queen Of Denmark. (Thyra Haraldsdatter Queen of Norway was born about 940 in Denmark and died on 24 Sep 1000 in Norway.)
Boleslav next married Judith, daughter of Geza Grand Duke of Hungary and Unknown, about 990. (Judith was born about 970.)
Boleslav next married Enmilda, daughter of Dobromir Duke of Lusatia and Unknown, about 995. (Enmilda was born about 975.)
Boleslav next married Oda, daughter of Rikdag Margrave of Meißen and Unknown, about 998. (Oda was born about 978.)